Cluster analysis fourth edition arnold filetype pdf Nueva Plymouth

cluster analysis fourth edition arnold filetype pdf

Ebook Practical Guide To Cluster Analysis In R as PDF A Case Study Approach Third Edition SAS • Cluster analysis — This analysis attempts to find natural groupings of observations in the data, based on a set of input variables. After grouping the observations into clusters, you can use the input variables to attempt to characterize each group. When the clusters have been identified and interpreted, you can decide whether to treat each

The Craft of Research Shandong University

Cluster Analysis 5th Edition Data Analysis General. template for the analysis of any firm, information is clearly the lubricant that allows us to do the analysis. There are three steps in the information process— acquiring the information, filtering what is useful from what is not, and keeping the information updated. Accepting the limitations of the printed page on all of these aspects, I, time series analysis, not about R. R code is provided simply to enhance the exposition by making the numerical examples reproducible. We have tried, where possible, to keep the problem sets in order so that an instructor may have an easy time moving from the second edition to the third edition. However, some of the old problems have been.

These techniques are applicable in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology and market research. This fourth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis represents a thorough revision of the third edition and covers new and developing areas such as classification likelihood and neural networks for clustering. Real life examples International Society of Parametric Analysts Parametric Estimating Handbook© Fourth Edition – April 2008

template for the analysis of any firm, information is clearly the lubricant that allows us to do the analysis. There are three steps in the information process— acquiring the information, filtering what is useful from what is not, and keeping the information updated. Accepting the limitations of the printed page on all of these aspects, I template for the analysis of any firm, information is clearly the lubricant that allows us to do the analysis. There are three steps in the information process— acquiring the information, filtering what is useful from what is not, and keeping the information updated. Accepting the limitations of the printed page on all of these aspects, I

Clustering for Utility Cluster analysis provides an abstraction from in-dividual data objects to the clusters in which those data objects reside. Ad-ditionally, some clustering techniques characterize each cluster in terms of a cluster prototype; i.e., a data object that is representative of the other ob-jects in the cluster. These cluster prototypes can be used as the basis for a . 489 number of analysis usually encountered in particle physics. Here the data usually consist of a set of observed events, e.g. particle collisions or decays, as opposed to the data of a radio astronomer, who deals with a signal measured as a function of time. The topic of time series analysis is therefore omitted, as is analysis of variance.

INTRODUCTION TO REAL ANALYSIS Fourth Edition Robert G. Bartle Donald R. Sherbert University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign John Wiley & Sons, Inc. FFIRS 12/15/2010 10:13:22 Page 4 VP & PUBLISHER Laurie Rosatone PROJECT EDITOR Shannon Corliss MARKETING MANAGER Jonathan Cottrell MEDIA EDITOR Melissa Edwards PHOTO RESEARCHER Sheena Goldstein PRODUCTION MANAGER Janis Soo … MACHINES AND MECHANISMS APPLIED KINEMATIC ANALYSIS Fourth Edition David H. Myszka University of Dayton Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

7 Analysis of Repeated Measures I: Analysis of Variance Type Models; Field Dependence and a Reverse Stroop Task 7.1Description of Data 7.2Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance 7.3Analysis Using SPSS 7.4Exercises 7.4.1More on the Reverse Stroop Task 7.4.2Visual Acuity Data. 7.4.3Blood Glucose Levels 8 Analysis of Repeated Measures II: Linear This is Edition 5.0 of GAWK: Effective AWK Programming: A User’s Guide for GNU Awk, for the 5.0.0 (or later) version of the GNU implementation of AWK. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation …

International Society of Parametric Analysts Parametric Estimating Handbook© Fourth Edition – April 2008 Statistics: 3.1 Cluster Analysis Rosie Cornish. 2007. 1 Introduction This handout is designed to provide only a brief introduction to cluster analysis and how it is done. Books giving further details are listed at the end. Cluster analysis is a multivariate method which aims to classify a sample of subjects (or ob-

Introduction To Mathematical Analysis John E. Hutchinson 1994 Revised by Richard J. Loy 1995/6/7 Department of Mathematics School of Mathematical Sciences ANU. Pure mathematics have one peculiar advantage, that they occa-sion no disputes among wrangling disputants, as in other branches of knowledge; and the reason is, because the deflnitions of the terms are premised, and everybody that … This is Edition 5.0 of GAWK: Effective AWK Programming: A User’s Guide for GNU Awk, for the 5.0.0 (or later) version of the GNU implementation of AWK. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation …

9 Cluster Analysis: Additional Issues and Algorithms 147 10 Anomaly Detection 157 iii. 1 Introduction 1. Discuss whether or not each of the following activities is a data mining task. (a) Dividing the customers of a company according to their gender. No. This is a simple database query. (b) Dividing the customers of a company according to their prof- itability. No. This is an accounting SEVENTH EDITION MULTIVARIATE DATA ANALYSIS i .-*.'.••. •••• ' -4 A Global Perspective Joseph F. Hair, Jr. Kennesaw State University William C. Black Louisiana State University Barry J. Babin University of Southern Mississippi Rolph E. Anderson Drexel University Upper Saddle River Boston Columbus San Francisco New York

These techniques are applicable in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology and market research. This fourth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis represents a thorough revision of the third edition and covers new and developing areas such as classification likelihood and neural networks for clustering. Real life examples Ward's minimum variance criterion minimizes the total within-cluster variance. To implement this method, at each step find the pair of clusters that leads to minimum increase in total within-cluster variance after merging. This increase is a weighted squared distance between cluster centers. At the initial step, all clusters are singletons

Data Mining Using SAS Enterprise Miner A Case Study

cluster analysis fourth edition arnold filetype pdf

Data Mining Using SAS® Enterprise Miner A Case Study. of analysis usually encountered in particle physics. Here the data usually consist of a set of observed events, e.g. particle collisions or decays, as opposed to the data of a radio astronomer, who deals with a signal measured as a function of time. The topic of time series analysis is therefore omitted, as is analysis of variance., SEVENTH EDITION MULTIVARIATE DATA ANALYSIS i .-*.'.••. •••• ' -4 A Global Perspective Joseph F. Hair, Jr. Kennesaw State University William C. Black Louisiana State University Barry J. Babin University of Southern Mississippi Rolph E. Anderson Drexel University Upper Saddle River Boston Columbus San Francisco New York.

A Case Study Approach SAS Support. Student Solutions Manual to accompany Applied Linear Statistical Models Fifth Edition Michael H. Kutner Emory University Christopher J. Nachtsheim University of Minnesota, Cluster Analysis: Classifying the Exoplanets 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Cluster Analysis 15.3 Analysis Using R Sadly Figure 15.2 gives no completely convincing verdict on the number of groups we should consider, but using a little imagination ‘little elbows’ can be spotted at the three and five group solutions. We can find the number of.

Introduction to Data Mining University of Minnesota

cluster analysis fourth edition arnold filetype pdf

Amazon.com Cluster Analysis (0000470749911) Brian S. 9 Cluster Analysis: Additional Issues and Algorithms 147 10 Anomaly Detection 157 iii. 1 Introduction 1. Discuss whether or not each of the following activities is a data mining task. (a) Dividing the customers of a company according to their gender. No. This is a simple database query. (b) Dividing the customers of a company according to their prof- itability. No. This is an accounting https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Cluster_analysis_algorithms Cluster Analysis: 5th Edition. Brian S. Everitt, Professor Emeritus, King's College, London, UK Sabine Landau, Morven Leese and Daniel Stahl, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, UK. Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups.

cluster analysis fourth edition arnold filetype pdf


7 Analysis of Repeated Measures I: Analysis of Variance Type Models; Field Dependence and a Reverse Stroop Task 7.1Description of Data 7.2Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance 7.3Analysis Using SPSS 7.4Exercises 7.4.1More on the Reverse Stroop Task 7.4.2Visual Acuity Data. 7.4.3Blood Glucose Levels 8 Analysis of Repeated Measures II: Linear Practical Guide To Cluster Analysis In R Top results of your surfing Practical Guide To Cluster Analysis In R Start Download Portable Document Format (PDF) and E-books (Electronic Books) Free Online Rating News 2016/2017 is books that can provide inspiration, insight, knowledge to the reader.

Introduction To Mathematical Analysis John E. Hutchinson 1994 Revised by Richard J. Loy 1995/6/7 Department of Mathematics School of Mathematical Sciences ANU. Pure mathematics have one peculiar advantage, that they occa-sion no disputes among wrangling disputants, as in other branches of knowledge; and the reason is, because the deflnitions of the terms are premised, and everybody that … FOURTH EDITION French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken

Study Approach, Fourth Edition SAS • Cluster analysis — This analysis attempts to find natural groupings of observations in the data, based on a set of input variables. After grouping the observations into clusters, you can use the input variables to attempt to characterize each group. When the clusters have been identified and interpreted, you can decide whether to treat each 7 Analysis of Repeated Measures I: Analysis of Variance Type Models; Field Dependence and a Reverse Stroop Task 7.1Description of Data 7.2Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance 7.3Analysis Using SPSS 7.4Exercises 7.4.1More on the Reverse Stroop Task 7.4.2Visual Acuity Data. 7.4.3Blood Glucose Levels 8 Analysis of Repeated Measures II: Linear

Study Approach, Fourth Edition SAS • Cluster analysis — This analysis attempts to find natural groupings of observations in the data, based on a set of input variables. After grouping the observations into clusters, you can use the input variables to attempt to characterize each group. When the clusters have been identified and interpreted, you can decide whether to treat each A Case Study Approach Third Edition SAS • Cluster analysis — This analysis attempts to find natural groupings of observations in the data, based on a set of input variables. After grouping the observations into clusters, you can use the input variables to attempt to characterize each group. When the clusters have been identified and interpreted, you can decide whether to treat each

14/01/2011 · Read "Cluster Analysis" by Brian S. Everitt available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first purchase. Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivaria... template for the analysis of any firm, information is clearly the lubricant that allows us to do the analysis. There are three steps in the information process— acquiring the information, filtering what is useful from what is not, and keeping the information updated. Accepting the limitations of the printed page on all of these aspects, I

9 Cluster Analysis: Additional Issues and Algorithms 147 10 Anomaly Detection 157 iii. 1 Introduction 1. Discuss whether or not each of the following activities is a data mining task. (a) Dividing the customers of a company according to their gender. No. This is a simple database query. (b) Dividing the customers of a company according to their prof- itability. No. This is an accounting time series analysis, not about R. R code is provided simply to enhance the exposition by making the numerical examples reproducible. We have tried, where possible, to keep the problem sets in order so that an instructor may have an easy time moving from the second edition to the third edition. However, some of the old problems have been

7 Analysis of Repeated Measures I: Analysis of Variance Type Models; Field Dependence and a Reverse Stroop Task 7.1Description of Data 7.2Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance 7.3Analysis Using SPSS 7.4Exercises 7.4.1More on the Reverse Stroop Task 7.4.2Visual Acuity Data. 7.4.3Blood Glucose Levels 8 Analysis of Repeated Measures II: Linear 7 Analysis of Repeated Measures I: Analysis of Variance Type Models; Field Dependence and a Reverse Stroop Task 7.1Description of Data 7.2Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance 7.3Analysis Using SPSS 7.4Exercises 7.4.1More on the Reverse Stroop Task 7.4.2Visual Acuity Data. 7.4.3Blood Glucose Levels 8 Analysis of Repeated Measures II: Linear

Statistics: 3.1 Cluster Analysis Rosie Cornish. 2007. 1 Introduction This handout is designed to provide only a brief introduction to cluster analysis and how it is done. Books giving further details are listed at the end. Cluster analysis is a multivariate method which aims to classify a sample of subjects (or ob- time series analysis, not about R. R code is provided simply to enhance the exposition by making the numerical examples reproducible. We have tried, where possible, to keep the problem sets in order so that an instructor may have an easy time moving from the second edition to the third edition. However, some of the old problems have been

complete linkage cluster analysis, because a cluster is formed when all the dissimilarities (‘links’) between pairs of objects in the cluster are less then a particular level. There are several alternatives to complete linkage as a clustering criterion, and we only discuss two of these: minimum and average clustering. Clustering for Utility Cluster analysis provides an abstraction from in-dividual data objects to the clusters in which those data objects reside. Ad-ditionally, some clustering techniques characterize each cluster in terms of a cluster prototype; i.e., a data object that is representative of the other ob-jects in the cluster. These cluster prototypes can be used as the basis for a . 489 number

The Craft of Research Shandong University

cluster analysis fourth edition arnold filetype pdf

Amazon.com Cluster Analysis (0000470749911) Brian S. 14/01/2011В В· Read "Cluster Analysis" by Brian S. Everitt available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first purchase. Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivaria..., WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen - 5th ed. Previous editions had different title : WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human.

Ward's method Wikipedia

Cluster Analysis 5th Edition Data Analysis General. Cluster Analysis: Basic Concepts and Algorithms TNM033: Introduction to Data Mining 1 ¾What does it mean clustering? Applications ¾Types of clustering ¾K-means Intuition Algorithm Choosing initial centroids Bisecting K-means Post-processing ¾Strengths and weaknesses ¾What’s next? Sections 2.4, 8.1, 8.2 of course book TNM033: Introduction to Data Mining 2 What is Cluster Analysis, WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen - 5th ed. Previous editions had different title : WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human.

International Society of Parametric Analysts Parametric Estimating Handbook© Fourth Edition – April 2008 template for the analysis of any firm, information is clearly the lubricant that allows us to do the analysis. There are three steps in the information process— acquiring the information, filtering what is useful from what is not, and keeping the information updated. Accepting the limitations of the printed page on all of these aspects, I

9 Cluster Analysis: Additional Issues and Algorithms 147 10 Anomaly Detection 157 iii. 1 Introduction 1. Discuss whether or not each of the following activities is a data mining task. (a) Dividing the customers of a company according to their gender. No. This is a simple database query. (b) Dividing the customers of a company according to their prof- itability. No. This is an accounting The aim of the third edition of The Craft of Research is the same as the fi rst two: to meet the needs of all researchers, not just fi rst- year undergraduates and advanced graduate students, but even those in business and government who do and report research on any topic, academic, political, or …

9 Cluster Analysis: Additional Issues and Algorithms 147 10 Anomaly Detection 157 iii. 1 Introduction 1. Discuss whether or not each of the following activities is a data mining task. (a) Dividing the customers of a company according to their gender. No. This is a simple database query. (b) Dividing the customers of a company according to their prof- itability. No. This is an accounting Cluster Analysis: Basic Concepts and Algorithms TNM033: Introduction to Data Mining 1 ¾What does it mean clustering? Applications ¾Types of clustering ¾K-means Intuition Algorithm Choosing initial centroids Bisecting K-means Post-processing ¾Strengths and weaknesses ¾What’s next? Sections 2.4, 8.1, 8.2 of course book TNM033: Introduction to Data Mining 2 What is Cluster Analysis

cluster analysis. Two phases: 1. Forming of clusters by the chosen data set – resulting in a new variable that identifies cluster members among the cases 2. Description of clusters by re-crossing with the data What cluster analysis does. Cluster Algorithm in agglomerative hierarchical clustering methods – seven steps to get clusters 1. each object is a independent cluster, n 2. two A Case Study Approach Third Edition SAS • Cluster analysis — This analysis attempts to find natural groupings of observations in the data, based on a set of input variables. After grouping the observations into clusters, you can use the input variables to attempt to characterize each group. When the clusters have been identified and interpreted, you can decide whether to treat each

on Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis presents the tools and concepts of multivariate data analysis with a strong focus on applications. The aim of the book is to present multivariate data analysis in a way that is understandable for non-mathematicians and practitioners who are confronted by statistical data analysis. The aim of the third edition of The Craft of Research is the same as the fi rst two: to meet the needs of all researchers, not just fi rst- year undergraduates and advanced graduate students, but even those in business and government who do and report research on any topic, academic, political, or …

I Regression analysis is a statistical technique used to describe relationships among variables. I The simplest case to examine is one in which a variable Y, referred to as the dependent or target variable, may be related to one variable X, called an independent or explanatory variable, or simply a regressor. complete linkage cluster analysis, because a cluster is formed when all the dissimilarities (‘links’) between pairs of objects in the cluster are less then a particular level. There are several alternatives to complete linkage as a clustering criterion, and we only discuss two of these: minimum and average clustering.

Cluster Analysis: 5th Edition. Brian S. Everitt, Professor Emeritus, King's College, London, UK Sabine Landau, Morven Leese and Daniel Stahl, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, UK. Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups International Society of Parametric Analysts Parametric Estimating Handbook© Fourth Edition – April 2008

This fourth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis represents a thorough revision of the third edition and covers new and developing areas such as classification likelihood and neural networks for clustering. Real life examples are used throughout to demonstrate the application of the theory, and figures are used extensively to 7 Analysis of Repeated Measures I: Analysis of Variance Type Models; Field Dependence and a Reverse Stroop Task 7.1Description of Data 7.2Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance 7.3Analysis Using SPSS 7.4Exercises 7.4.1More on the Reverse Stroop Task 7.4.2Visual Acuity Data. 7.4.3Blood Glucose Levels 8 Analysis of Repeated Measures II: Linear

MULTIVARIATE DATA ANALYSIS GBV

cluster analysis fourth edition arnold filetype pdf

Ebook Practical Guide To Cluster Analysis In R as PDF. Student Solutions Manual to accompany Applied Linear Statistical Models Fifth Edition Michael H. Kutner Emory University Christopher J. Nachtsheim University of Minnesota, This fourth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis represents a thorough revision of the third edition and covers new and developing areas such as classification likelihood and neural networks for clustering. Real life examples are used throughout to demonstrate the application of the theory, and figures are used extensively to.

MULTIVARIATE DATA ANALYSIS GBV

cluster analysis fourth edition arnold filetype pdf

MULTIVARIATE DATA ANALYSIS GBV. Ward's minimum variance criterion minimizes the total within-cluster variance. To implement this method, at each step find the pair of clusters that leads to minimum increase in total within-cluster variance after merging. This increase is a weighted squared distance between cluster centers. At the initial step, all clusters are singletons https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Cluster_analysis_algorithms The aim of the third edition of The Craft of Research is the same as the fi rst two: to meet the needs of all researchers, not just fi rst- year undergraduates and advanced graduate students, but even those in business and government who do and report research on any topic, academic, political, or ….

cluster analysis fourth edition arnold filetype pdf


MACHINES AND MECHANISMS APPLIED KINEMATIC ANALYSIS Fourth Edition David H. Myszka University of Dayton Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo FOURTH EDITION French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken

Statistics: 3.1 Cluster Analysis Rosie Cornish. 2007. 1 Introduction This handout is designed to provide only a brief introduction to cluster analysis and how it is done. Books giving further details are listed at the end. Cluster analysis is a multivariate method which aims to classify a sample of subjects (or ob- A Case Study Approach Third Edition SAS • Cluster analysis — This analysis attempts to find natural groupings of observations in the data, based on a set of input variables. After grouping the observations into clusters, you can use the input variables to attempt to characterize each group. When the clusters have been identified and interpreted, you can decide whether to treat each

time series analysis, not about R. R code is provided simply to enhance the exposition by making the numerical examples reproducible. We have tried, where possible, to keep the problem sets in order so that an instructor may have an easy time moving from the second edition to the third edition. However, some of the old problems have been Student Solutions Manual to accompany Applied Linear Statistical Models Fifth Edition Michael H. Kutner Emory University Christopher J. Nachtsheim University of Minnesota

Ward's minimum variance criterion minimizes the total within-cluster variance. To implement this method, at each step find the pair of clusters that leads to minimum increase in total within-cluster variance after merging. This increase is a weighted squared distance between cluster centers. At the initial step, all clusters are singletons Cluster Analysis: Classifying the Exoplanets 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Cluster Analysis 15.3 Analysis Using R Sadly Figure 15.2 gives no completely convincing verdict on the number of groups we should consider, but using a little imagination ‘little elbows’ can be spotted at the three and five group solutions. We can find the number of

template for the analysis of any firm, information is clearly the lubricant that allows us to do the analysis. There are three steps in the information process— acquiring the information, filtering what is useful from what is not, and keeping the information updated. Accepting the limitations of the printed page on all of these aspects, I Cluster Analysis: Classifying the Exoplanets 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Cluster Analysis 15.3 Analysis Using R Sadly Figure 15.2 gives no completely convincing verdict on the number of groups we should consider, but using a little imagination ‘little elbows’ can be spotted at the three and five group solutions. We can find the number of

Cluster Analysis: 5th Edition. Brian S. Everitt, Professor Emeritus, King's College, London, UK Sabine Landau, Morven Leese and Daniel Stahl, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, UK. Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups Student Solutions Manual to accompany Applied Linear Statistical Models Fifth Edition Michael H. Kutner Emory University Christopher J. Nachtsheim University of Minnesota

A Case Study Approach Third Edition SAS • Cluster analysis — This analysis attempts to find natural groupings of observations in the data, based on a set of input variables. After grouping the observations into clusters, you can use the input variables to attempt to characterize each group. When the clusters have been identified and interpreted, you can decide whether to treat each A Case Study Approach Third Edition SAS • Cluster analysis — This analysis attempts to find natural groupings of observations in the data, based on a set of input variables. After grouping the observations into clusters, you can use the input variables to attempt to characterize each group. When the clusters have been identified and interpreted, you can decide whether to treat each

A Case Study Approach Third Edition SAS • Cluster analysis — This analysis attempts to find natural groupings of observations in the data, based on a set of input variables. After grouping the observations into clusters, you can use the input variables to attempt to characterize each group. When the clusters have been identified and interpreted, you can decide whether to treat each template for the analysis of any firm, information is clearly the lubricant that allows us to do the analysis. There are three steps in the information process— acquiring the information, filtering what is useful from what is not, and keeping the information updated. Accepting the limitations of the printed page on all of these aspects, I

time series analysis, not about R. R code is provided simply to enhance the exposition by making the numerical examples reproducible. We have tried, where possible, to keep the problem sets in order so that an instructor may have an easy time moving from the second edition to the third edition. However, some of the old problems have been A Case Study Approach Third Edition SAS • Cluster analysis — This analysis attempts to find natural groupings of observations in the data, based on a set of input variables. After grouping the observations into clusters, you can use the input variables to attempt to characterize each group. When the clusters have been identified and interpreted, you can decide whether to treat each